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Francis Marion National Forest を知るための参考資料

2010年03月29日 01:14

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Virginia live oak(Quercus virginiana)
Water Tupelo (Nyssa aquatica)
Bald cypress (Taxodium distichum)
Spanish moss (Tillandsia usneoides)

Virginia live oak(Quercus virginiana)
Quercus virginiana(Virginia live oak)

Depending on the growing conditions, live oaks vary from the shrubby to large and spreading: typical open-grown trees reach 15 meters (50 feet) in height, but may span nearly 50 meters. Their lower limbs often sweep down towards the ground before curving up again. They can grow at severe angles, and Native Americans used to bend saplings over so that they would grow at extreme angles, to serve as trail markers. They drop their leaves, and grow new ones, within a few weeks in spring. The bark is furrowed longitudinally, and the acorns are small, but long and tapered. The branches frequently support other plant species such as rounded clumps of ball moss, thick drapings of Spanish moss, Resurrection fern, and parasitic mistletoe.

Southern live oak can grow in moist to dry sites. They can withstand occasional floods and hurricanes, and are resistant to salt spray and moderate soil salinity. They tend to survive fire, because often a fire will not reach their crowns. Even if a tree is burned, its crowns and roots usually survive the fire and sprout vigorously. Furthermore live oak forests discourage entry of fire from adjacent communities because they provide dense cover that discourages the growth of a flammable understory. Although they grow best in well-drained sandy soils and loams, they will also grow in clay. Live oaks are also surprisingly hardy. Those of southern provenance can easily be grown in USDA zone 7 and the Texas Live Oak (Quercus virginiana var. fusiformis), having the same evergreen foliage as the Southern variety, can be grown with success in areas as cold as zone 6. Even with significant winter leaf burn, these trees can make a strong comeback during the growing season in more northerly areas such New Jersey, southern Ohio, and southern Connecticut.
Angel Oak of Johns Island, South Carolina. Angel Oak is estimated at 1400 years of age. The person by the tree is 160 centimeters (63 inches) tall.

Among the animals for which live oak acorns are an important food source are the bobwhite quail, the threatened Florida scrub jay, the wood duck, yellow-bellied sapsucker, wild turkey, black bear, various species of squirrel, and the white-tailed deer. Native Americans extracted an oil from the acorns. The tree crown is very dense, making it valuable for shade, and the species provides nest sites for many other species.

Water Tupelo (Nyssa aquatica)

Nyssa aquatica (Water Tupelo, Cottongum, Sourgum, Tupelo-gum, and Water-gum)

Water Tupelo (Nyssa aquatica)
Water Tupelo (Nyssa aquatica), also called cottongum, sourgum, tupelo-gum, and water-gum, is a large, long-lived tupelo tree that grows in swamps and floodplains of the Eastern United States. It has a swollen base that tapers to a long, clear bole and its root system is periodically under water. Water Tupelo often occurs in pure stands. A good mature tree will produce commercial timber used for furniture and crates. Many kinds of wildlife eat the fruits and it is a favored honey tree.

The swollen base of the Water Tupelo is the source of a favored wood of wood carvers.

Bald cypress (Taxodium distichum)
Taxodium distichum (Baldcypress, Bald Cypress, or Swamp Cypress)

Bald cypress trees (Taxodium distichum)
Bald cypress
Bald cypress PLANTS Profile

It is a large tree, reaching 25–40 m (rarely to 44 m) tall and a trunk diameter of 2–3 m, rarely to 5 m. The bark is gray-brown to red-brown, shallowly vertically fissured, with a stringy texture. The leaves are borne on deciduous branchlets that are spirally arranged on the stem but twisted at the base to lie in two horizontal ranks, 1-2 cm long and 1-2 mm broad; unlike most other species in the family Cupressaceae, it is deciduous, losing the leaves in the winter months, hence the name 'bald'. It is monoecious. Male and female strobili mature in about 12 months; they are produced from buds formed in the late fall, with pollination in early winter. The seed cones are green maturing gray-brown, globular, 2-3.5 cm in diameter. They have from 20–30 spirally arranged four-sided scales, each bearing one or two (rarely three) trianglular seeds. The number of seeds per cone ranges from 20–40. The cones disintegrate when mature to release the large seeds. The seeds are 5-10 mm long, the largest of any species in the cypress family, and are produced every year but with heavy crops every three to five years. The seedlings have 3–9 (most often 6) cotyledons.[2]

The main trunks are surrounded by cypress knees .

The largest known individual specimen is "The Senator", near Longwood, Florida: it is 35 m tall, and with a trunk diameter of 344 cm and an estimated volume of 119.4 m³. The tallest known, near Williamsburg, Virginia, is 44 m tall, and the stoutest known, in the Cat Island National Wildlife Refuge in Louisiana, has 521 cm diameter.[4]

Spanish moss (Tillandsia usneoides)
Spanish moss (Tillandsia usneoides)
Spanish moss PLANTS Profile

Spanish moss (Tillandsia usneoides) is a flowering plant that grows upon larger trees, commonly the Southern Live Oak (Quercus virginiana) or Bald Cypress (Taxodium distichum) in the southeastern United States.
Spanish moss closely resembles its namesake (Usnea, or beard lichen), but in fact it is not biologically related to either mosses or lichens. Instead, it is an angiosperm in the family Bromeliaceae (the bromeliads) that grows hanging from tree branches in full sun or partial shade. Formerly this plant has been placed in the genera Anoplophytum, Caraguata, and Renealmia.[2] It ranges from the southeastern United States (southern Virginia and eastern Maryland) to Argentina, growing wherever the climate is warm enough and has a relatively high average humidity.

The plant consists of a slender stem bearing alternate thin, curved or curly, heavily scaled leaves 2–6 cm (0.79–2.4 in) long and 1 mm (0.039 in) broad, that grow vegetatively in chain-like fashion (pendant) to form hanging structures up to 6 m (240 in)[3] in length. The plant has no aerial roots [4]and its flowers are tiny and inconspicuous. It propagates both by seed and vegetatively by fragments that blow on the wind and stick to tree limbs, or are carried by birds as nesting material.






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